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What role has in-betweenness played since 2000s? In Turkey and Indonesia’s bilateral relations with the EU and Japan respectively

A working paper authored by Jing-syuan exploring the notion of "in-betweenness" a central concept of her individual research project.

Table of Contents

  1. Introduction
  2. Theoretical framework: Classical Realism and Analytical Eclecticism
  3. The Ambiguities of the EU’s Promotion of Democracy, Human Rights, and the Rule of Law in its international relations: the case of Turkey
    • Normative Power Europe: lighthouse keeper of democracy, human rights, and the rule of law?
    • The case of Turkey: rugged road to Europe
  4. Relations between Japan and Indonesia
  5. Turkey and Indonesia’s in-betweenness compared: linkage between domestic diverse identities and external balancing acts.
    • Definition of In-betweenness
    • Change and Continuities of Turkish in-between: from Kemalist-western modernization to neo-Ottoman foreign policy, promoting multipolarity while advancing Islamic ideologies
    • Continuity of Indonesian in-between: pragmatism and balance of power
    • Comparison between Turkish and Indonesian in-between
    • Operationalization of in-betweenness in comparison: level of analysis
  6. Conclusion and Limitation
  7. Bibliography
  8. Appendix

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